The present work is concerned with the study of the hydrodynamic performance of an Olympic class “K-1” flat water racing Kayak. The evaluation of the hydrodynamic resistance of the vessel is of major importance since it is directly related to the human power required to sustain a specific speed. In this respect, experiments in calm water and regular waves were conducted at various speeds past the particular boat at the towing tank of the Laboratory for Ship and Marine Hydrodynamics (LSMH) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The calm water tests were performed in the range of speeds from 0.25 to 5m/s and useful conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of the wave formation on the non-dimensional resistance coefficients. Experiments in regular waves were carried out for two characteristic speeds and showed an increase of the hydrodynamic resistance of about 11%. Furthermore, systematic numerical tests using advanced computer codes developed at LSMHE have been performed in order to investigate whether Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools can be applied with confidence for predicting the calm water resistance of similar vessels. The scope of this part of the investigation is related to a rapid and cost-effective optimization of the shape of the boat. The computed results for the total resistance were in satisfactory agreement with the measurements, thus forming a basis for further investigation and deeper understanding of the athlete-boat interaction, especially for high performance and competition boats.
Under this study, every coach may form the way his athlete paddles, taking into consideration the hydrodynamic resistance during a canoe – kayak race with or without head waves. Additionally, this investigation is important for the canoe – kayak boat manufacturers since they can improve the boat shapes using existing CFD tools and taking into account the resistance increase due to waves.
Key words: racing-kayak, resistance, experiments, potential, RANS
This investigation presented administrative and marketing-related information on Kaohsiung City’s preparation for the 2009 World Games. The presented information was allocated through an extensive literature review on secondary sources, personal interviews, and observations from fall of 2008 to summer of 2009. Promotional strategies and activities, projected financial and sales data, reports on constructions, and issues and challenges related to the Games were further analyzed. The study further discussed the “not-for-profit” approach that was practiced by many East Asian Countries to gain international recognition and promote patriotism while hosting a major sport event.
Concerns regarding gentrification of sports and the loss of middle-income fans have increased throughout the years, as ticket prices have continued to increase well beyond the rate of inflation for professional sports. This research focused on the changes in purchasing power for fans wishing to attend live games in the National Football League from 1991 to 2009 and then made subsequent forecasts for purchasing power 10 years into the future, should current pricing trends continue unabated. The Fan Cost Index (FCI) was utilized to compare purchasing power over time. Results showed that average FCI price for the league increased by 75% beyond inflation from 1991 to 2009. Purchasing power for fans from all the teams in the study diminished in some fashion from 1991 to 2009. However, eight of the 24 teams in the study severely reduced fan purchasing power, including a 50% or more reduction in the number of tickets alone. If pricing trends continue, the league could experience decreased attendance, particularly from fans in the lower income brackets.
Key words: purchasing power, FCI, gentrification, NFL, ticket prices
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of arm span on the acute effects of fatigue caused by maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) on performance in the bench press. Eight female collegiate track and field athletes involved in the throws events (shot put, discus, hammer, and javelin) volunteered for this investigation. Initial assessments included one-repetition maximums in the bench press (Pre Max 59.5±19.8kg) for each volunteer as well as basic anthropometric data including arm span. Volunteers reported twice for two treatments that included three maximal bench press attempts. The standard (STAND) treatment consisted only of the maximal attempts. The MVIC treatment consisted of a 30-second maximal voluntary isometric contraction prior to maximal attempts. General Linear Model analysis was performed to evaluate fixed effects (Treatment, Arm span) on maximum weight lifted. The model was significant (Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square 3507.525, p<0.001) and revealed main effects for treatment (STAND 59.78±18.8kg vs. MVIC 52.32±11.5kg, p<0.001) and arm span (p<0.001), as well as a significant two-way interaction treatment*arm span (p<0.001). Post-Hoc analysis revealed that under the STAND treatment arm span was not a predictor of change in bench press performance; however under the MVIC treatment (F=16.255, p=0.007) arm span was a significant negative predictor of change in bench press performance (Beta = -0.855, p<0.001). Arm span is a simple measure that can quickly and easily be assessed; yet also a variable that can provide valuable information for coaches to consider before planning weight training for track and field throws athletes.
Key Words: Anthropometry, Strength, Athlete
Pre-performance routines are individualized tasks that are intended to prepare the athlete for correct execution. While the efficacy of pre-performance routines appears established, debate exists concerning temporal consistency. The current study examined pre-performance routine times and degree of difficulty of the top 16 state divers in the mid-western United States. Each of the 16 participants in the study performed 10 different dives with varying difficulty and scores. Significance was found between the top eight finishers and bottom eight finishers in mean pre-performance time. The top eight finishers had a mean pre-performance time of 6.18 seconds and the bottom eight finishers mean pre-performance time was 4.93 seconds. Significance was also revealed across the degree of difficulty of dives (easy, moderate, and hard) and their pre-performance times. Results support previous findings that suggest duration of pre-performance routines increase as difficulty increases, resulting in improved performance.
Key Words: Pre-performance routines, diving, duration
Athletes participating in all levels of sport experience extraordinarily high levels of stress, expectations, and physical challenges. The throws event athlete in track and field should strive to achieve an optimal state of arousal and concentration during specific competitions. A strong body of research evaluating the qualities of the flow state in athletics and psychological skills training is present in sport psychology. A practical guide for coaches to apply psychological skills training in a periodized training plan is missing. The purpose of this article is to: 1) describe a periodized annual plan for mental skills training and 2) suggest a method to interject those skills into the competition day routine to achieve flow for the track and field thrower.
Key words: flow, mental toughness, mental periodization, track and field, throws
This paper will examine academics and athletics. In particular it will review the NCAA’s newest academic measuring tool, the Academic Progress Report. The APR was the NCAA’s response to calls for academic integrity. It is intended to ensure eligibility for student-athletes and to serve as a check and balance on athletic departments. The scores are meant to provide institutions with a clear set of goals for each team and to set a higher priority on academics in collegiate athletic departments. We will try and answer the question: Do BSC schools have an advantage over non-BCS schools in APR rankings?
The Senior Woman Administrator (SWA), originally named the Primary Woman Administrator (PWA), is a role designed to return to women a voice in the operations of intercollegiate athletic departments that was lost as a result of the takeover of the AIAW by the NCAA. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the SWA as it exists today and as it could become in the future. The Senior Woman Administrator Survey was developed and administered to all NCAA Division I SWAs. Senior Woman Administrators overwhelmingly disagreed with the statement suggesting they have been given responsibilities that are appropriate for their job. Further, in order for SWAs to have authority that is more than advisory in nature, they must have final decision making authority in budget and personnel. Finally, SWAs indicated that their primary functions were advocating for women’s athletics, gender equity, and serving as a role model.
Horror stories of outlandish behavior by coaches in the sport milieu: many have heard the stories, to one extent or another. Many have personally dealt with the accompanying emotions of dread, humiliation, discrimination, and fear that coaches have imposed during practices and games. Many have suffered immeasurably while helplessly watching their child endure torment at the hands of an abusive coach or coaches. Many have asked the same questions: What can be done? What good can possibly come from garnishing discussion with the coach, athletic director or administrator? Will the ordeal continue with new vigor because the problem was brought out into the open? Parents often struggle with these types of questions, wavering in a sea of indecision, wishing for easy solutions to unfortunate situations. And so the questions remain: what can be done; are there potential solutions; and where can one seek advice?
Skateboarders are often seen as outsiders. However, understanding the culture of skateboarding can be insightful for politicians, adults, or scholars who seek to develop stronger relationships with young people who participate in skateboarding (Freeman & Riordan, 2002). In this ethnographic study, skateboarding culture is described through observations of professional skateboarders in a segment of the DVD, Planes, Trains and Skateboards. The findings suggested themes of acceptance, energy and drive, concern for safety, self-expression of style, and progression. Leaders who understand the culture of skateboarding may be able to communicate more effectively with the younger generation.