This research paper examines how antitrust laws have played a role in shaping the financial operations of the professional sports industry of today. Different aspects of economical, historical, governmental, cultural and financial perspectives have been identified as vital sources in the professional sports industry of the past, present and future. This paper will also provide case studies and other field research to reveal how the influence of economical, historical, governmental, cultural and financial perspectives stem from antitrust laws that have shaped the world of professional sports today in the NFL for football, NBA for basketball, NHL for hockey, and MLB for baseball.
In the current sport business environment, relationship marketing tactics play a predominant role due to the increased importance of the relationship between professional sport franchises and their customers. Definitions of relationship marketing stress the creating and sustaining of a network between the individual customer and the company (Milne & McDonald, 1998; Mullin, Hardy, & Sutton, 2000; Ping, 1999; Shani & Chalasani, 1992; Wulf, Odekerken-Schroder, & Lacobucci, 2001). For many years, professional sport franchises have been interested in developing fan loyalty or psychological connections with their customers through relationship marketing.
This research attempts to ascertain whether factors known prior to a NASCAR race can help to predict the order of finish of that race. We provide evidence in the form of correlation analysis of the order of finish with available quantitative and categorical information collected, and a simple test for the effect of teams (regressions for each races are also available from the authors). Data were collected on 14 races from the 2003 NASCAR Winston Cup (now Nextel Cup Series) schedule.
Sports and spirituality may be an oxymoron. What could be less spiritual than ‘big business’ sports?
This paper serves to review the apparent growth in ‘spirituality’ as a concept within wider society and its relevance to the world of sport. It will examine how sport in modern society is arguably the new spirituality.
The purpose of this study was to determine the colors and color combinations used by the professional soccer clubs and to evaluate the proportion of the cultural interaction between the people and colors in Turkey. The study was carried out on 220 soccer clubs which have 480 colors and 220 color combinations evaluated. The study revealed that the combination mostly preferred by the professional soccer clubs in Turkish soccer leagues is red and white with n=26 (11.8%) followed by green and white with n=25 (11.4%). The color the most frequently observed in professional soccer clubs in Turkish soccer is white by 25.8%. This is followed by red by 18.1% and green by 12.5%. The colors preferred by the soccer clubs are general reflection of the cultural richness of the city, region or of the people they represent. This is especially the case for the clubs with deep rooted historical heritage.
This study uses quantile regressions to evaluate salaries of NBA players in the 2001–2002 season separately for big men and guards. Quantile regression allows the measurement of the return to player attributes for guards and big men at different salary (skill) levels along the distribution of NBA salaries.
This article presents an empirical analysis of the relationships between intelligence and both passing performance in college and compensation in the National Football League (NFL). A group of 84 drafted and signed quarterbacks from 1989 to 2004 was selected for the study. The author hypothesizes that intelligence is the most important and perhaps most rewarded at this position, and a wide variety of passing performance statistics are available to separate the effects of intelligence and ability. The OLS-estimated models reveal no statistically significant relationship between intelligence and collegiate passing performance. Likewise, the author finds no evidence of higher compensation in the NFL for players with higher intelligence as measured by the Wonderlic Personnel Test administered at the NFL Scouting Combine.